Silo Fighters Blog

Ghana: How listening to those “left behind” changed our thinking

BY Bianca Juhl Andersen | May 17, 2017

A 14-year old orphan girl told us her story. When her parents died, she was forced to drop out of school. She was 10 years old. In a desperate attempt to earn money to provide for herself and her younger siblings, she became a sex worker. She charges GHS 5-12 (USD1,25-3) per customer - barely enough to even cover her expenses. She sleeps outdoors, despite the high risks of theft and sexual assaults - especially during the frequent power cuts in Accra, Ghana’s capital, leaving the area dark and dangerous. Her dream is to go to school, and to gain skills to get a good job. But first she has to deal with her daily need to earn money, the ever-present danger of assault and violence from customers, and health risks. These are some of the stories we have been hearing during a consultative process we as the UN in Ghana have convened over the past several months. We have been listening to human rights experts, advocates and representatives on the human rights challenges in Ghana; on both current and future challenges. Based on these expert inputs, we reached out to excluded groups who have little or no voice in Ghana: people with disabilities, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people (LGBTIs), underage sex-workers, prisoners, and injection drug users. We wanted to consult representatives of groups of people, whose human rights are at risk of not being respected, and have little or no access to decision makers in Ghana. For the first time, we used our networks to identify people from these hard-to-reach groups and met with them to better understand the human rights challenges they are facing. Obscured by data gaps We met with representatives from three of the identified groups, where we had vast data access difficulties: underage sex workers, the LGBTI community, and injection drug users – about 50 people in total.  We asked open-ended questions because we wanted to understand the challenges they face with respect to their human rights. While challenges differed across the three groups, there were common concerns such as security and personal safety, stigmatization from society, the need for education and skills training, and the lack of access to health facilities and medical care. When we talked to, for instance, the underage sex workers, they all shared a common wish to stop working in the sex industry. They wanted to go to school instead – they wanted a “normal” life. But to stop working as sex workers and return to school, they need to get an income to provide for themselves and their families. In our work in Ghana, the UN is committed to ensuring that human rights are recognized and protected. Human rights are at core of the UN’s pledge to support Ghana in meeting its commitment to the sustainable development agenda. Despite our ongoing programmes, these harrowing stories were new to us, as we hardly even knew that underage sex workers — or intravenous drug users for that matter — existed in Ghana to the extent they do. The need to check in with those we serve Engaging with people who face these issues changed our thinking. We assumed they wanted to be taken off the street and given educational opportunities. But that was not necessarily the case — at least not in the short run. The main objective of the underage sex workers was to ensure an income for their families – and to stay safe. In the long run, they want expanded opportunities, but in our strategies, we need to consider interventions that preserve the income they provide to their families. We are now exploring how best to enable government and other partners to address the problems we heard, in the UN’s next strategic plan, the UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2018-21, via interventions by UN agencies working together to make sure that no one is left behind in Ghana. The UNDAF will be finalized in partnership with national stakeholders in 2017. We will keep you posted on how we will address the issues heard in our consultations. As we move forward, the UN will support Ghana to ensure that human rights challenges are fully addressed - so that no one is left behind.

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The true poverty of data

BY Alexandru Oprunenco, Tom Saunders | May 10, 2017

Eradicating poverty remains a long-standing goal of global development. It’s also a centerpiece of the 2030 Agenda. And while no one would doubt the importance of this goal, a lingering question remains: how do we measure poverty and how do we best make use of poverty data? Beyond income as a measure of poverty The standard approach to measuring poverty is monetary metrics or the international poverty line, which in October 2015 was updated to $1.9 from $1.25 per day. Monetary poverty is at the core for the progress indicators under MDG1 and to a significant extent under SDG1. The main advantages of this approach are its relative easiness to measure and international comparability. The key disadvantage is however that it fails to grasp multiple deprivations including access to basic services, such as health and education. The Multi-dimensional poverty index (MPI) was in part developed to answer exactly this question: how can we have a more truthful measurement of human poverty by combining several crucial dimensions of deprivation. Seeds of discontent: when numbers meet reality Both the income based and multi-dimensional approaches to poverty measurement are examples of upstream data: while they  provide the advantage of international comparability, their uses are quite limited when it comes to informing programmatic interventions and contextualizing poverty in national or subnational contexts. For instance, years of schooling can mean something completely different in countries with strong or weak public educational system and thus have different relevance as a part of poverty measurement depending on the country context. So the risk is that while comparability of data is important to drive a spirit of competition among countries to advance their development, it might not give policy makers the data they need to make decisions based on reality. Take poverty data in Moldova – a focus on income only has made available data increasingly devoid of sense. While the poverty rate has fallen more than thrice, the poverty has increasingly topped the list of public’s concerns. How can this seeming ‘cognitive dissonance’  be explained? Part of the explanation is that nation poverty line is set artificially low. Another part of explanation is that focusing on the monetary aspects of poverty conceals important dimensions such as access to health or education or high discrepancies resulting from characteristics of different categories of population. For instance, issues related to access to health services in some rural communities of Moldova or the capital city can be of completely different nature. So, we need a different poverty measure in Moldova that would be able to: a) reflect better realities on the ground and b) be granular and context-aware enough to inform and inspire action either on nation and/or local and community level.  But how can we move forward to achieve that? Is there an alternative way? The democratization of the public policy space, and the advent of new technologies fortunately opens opportunities to test alternative approaches to poverty measurement. One of these approaches involves harnessing the collective intelligence of those living in poverty to inform policy interventions. After all, as G.K. Chesterton famously quipped: “By experts in poverty I do not mean sociologists, but poor men.”  (of course, we can’t blame him in the 19th century for omitting poor women as experts in poverty...) While tools for harnessing collective intelligence are constantly evolving, getting peoples’ views on poverty isn’t all that new.  In the 1990s the World Bank undertook a number of comprehensive studies that tried to incorporate the voices of the poor into poverty measurement exercises. These consultations, conducted in 23 countries around the world, used a number of participatory methods to capture the experiences of those living in poverty in a given place and time. Consulting citizens about what poverty means to them isn’t particularly new. However, making this information useful for decision makers - civil servants, politicians, and those with aid budgets, is an ongoing challenge. Together with our partners from Nesta and the Moldova National Bureau of Statistics we have decided to undertake several pilots to understand how the knowledge of those living in disadvantaged circumstances can be successfully harnessed to inform decision making. First, we want to redefine what poverty and its various dimensions mean in Moldova. And we want to do it together with poor and vulnerable people in Moldova. This is a stark departure from most current approaches that rely on experts defining poverty dimensions, not poor people themselves. Our assumption here is that we will be able to focus on relevant aspects of poverty dimensions that are relevant in the Moldovan context, even if these would mean sacrificing the international comparability of data. This will improve  decision-makers’ understanding of the issues that matter most to poor Moldovans, and hopefully improve their ability to act, for instance, shifting from monetary social assistance to the one targeted to identified aspects of poverty. Furthermore, we will be able to highlight differences across different regions and have a more granular understanding of how various characteristic of people affect their poverty (age, employment standing, people with disabilities, etc.) status. Eventually, this understanding will lead to different indicators suitable for either national or local decision-makers (eventually households themselves – working together on understanding and measuring poverty can bring completely different power dynamics and give poor people agency to act). In practice this will involve holding conversations with 20 groups of vulnerable and disadvantaged people, from the unemployed to the elderly, to understand the issues matter most to them. These conversations will be carried out by local NGOs in Moldova. Since this is not the first time we have held consultative processes in Moldova we have decided to use two simple methods to try to understand these issues: semi-structured group discussions, led by a trained facilitator, and a ranking exercise, to understand the relative importance of the various issues that vulnerable communities face. While these conversations will not aim to bring together a representative sample of vulnerable people in Moldova, they will hopefully give us a much richer understanding of what it means to be poor in Moldova. Making participatory evidence useful Many citizen consultation exercises stop at this stage: the consultation is used to write a report, which is then handed over to policymakers, in the hope that they will act on the information. However, as the work of Nesta’s Alliance for Useful Evidence has shown, promoting the use of evidence in decision making is not just about the quality of the evidence, there is also a need to make it useful for the consumers of evidence. This has several implications, from supporting decision makers to develop the skills to make use of evidence, through to tailoring the presentation of the evidence to the needs of the audience. Building on these insights, in the second stage of the project we will design several tools for various audiences and test them in small scale pilots. The first will be a survey that will be designed in conjunction with, and carried out by, the National Bureau of Statistics in Moldova. It will be used to complement the Household Budget Survey (HBS). The goal is to provide a richer picture, for policymakers, of what it means to experience poverty in Moldova. The second will be a tool that NGOs, community groups and potentially local governments can use to inform their planning and budget allocation, based on the needs and knowledge of the communities they serve. What will success look like for this project? Well, we hope to inspire other countries to pursue similar journeys on redefining poverty based on their national context and views of poor people themselves, in order to better explain and inform interventions on the ground. Alongside this, we hope that the methods that are developed through this pilot and the lessons that we learn will prove useful for those wishing to harness the collective intelligence of citizens.

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In DRC, building bridges between peacekeeping and development

BY Per Bjälkander | May 4, 2017

Have you ever read an article about the failures of UN peacekeeping? And wondered why the UN invests significant money towards sending foreigners into war-torn countries, only to get caught up in stories of sex abuse and some peacekeepers hiding in their bases when the going gets tough? The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is not new to such stories. When President Mobutu was overthrown in 1997 after over 30 years of autocratic rule, the country tumbled into chaos with an increased number of armed groups. This led to internal and regional conflict involving many neighboring countries. Despite several peace agreements, the country is struggling to recover from this history of conflict. Old problems continue year after year. State building, where the international community tries to support the government in developing institutions, is still ongoing. Several presidential elections have been postponed. Armed conflict has escalated in new parts of the country such as the Kasai provinces, where we recently lost UN workers. There are currently approximately 2.1 million people who have been forced to leave their homes due to violent conflict. Collaborating for a cause We at the UN are asking ourselves: how do we help break this trend? UN civilian and military peacekeepers (MONUSCO) have been in the country 18 years and have tremendous capacity. The United Nations in the Democratic Republic of Congo includes over 20 other UN organizations that are also present in the DRC, and many work on similar issues as the peacekeeping forces. The problem is that there isn’t enough collaboration between the UN organizations and the peacekeepers. However, with the new global consensus as agreed in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, there is an understanding that development actors, peacekeepers and humanitarian workers need to work together. To sustain peace, we need functioning schools, social services and local councils just as much as we need “blue helmets.” The UN in the DRC wants to innovate by finding ways to take advantage of the peacekeepers’ presence to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), focusing on promoting peace, justice and strong institutions. Peace keeping and development agencies working together  Our main objective is to ensure that MONUSCO and the UN country team have a joint strategy that builds on what each one does best. The UN Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs) need to be in line with national priorities and capture the SDGs. Therefore, the UN decided to first support the government in adapting the SDGs to the Congolese context, in order to prepare a new National Development Plan. For SDG 16 which aims to promote peace, justice and strong institutions, the government prioritized reducing violence, fighting corruption and good governance. To build on this work, the UN also supports the Ministry of Planning in arranging a meeting with government officials, specifically on the topics of peace, justice, and strong institutions. With the help of MONUSCO, government officials presented and discussed baseline data for reducing violence, fighting corruption and good governance. It is critical to know where we stand in order to measure future impact. What’s next? The UNDAF has been postponed by one year due to significant political issues and delays in drafting a national development plan that the UN could align itself with. The year will provide extra time for a discussion between the UN and the government on strategic priorities. In the meantime, the UN is putting in place “joint task forces” on specific themes where MONUSCO and the UN country team have a common interest. Inspired by the call for new ways of working at the World Humanitarian Summit, we are working together on reintegration of ex-combatants, displacement, justice, gender and human rights. Stay tuned for more about this in future posts. In countries where violent conflict exists, let’s remember that teaching a young person a skill is peacekeeping, and getting a young combatant out of war is development. Photo: UNHCR/B.Sokol

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Finding the balance: Right to privacy and the drive to innovate in the UN

BY Jens Wandel, Robert Kirkpatrick, Mila Romanoff, Gina Lucarelli | April 28, 2017

It is now more and more accepted that big data (distinguished by higher volume, variety and velocity, and often collected/created in real time by private sector entities) has an important role to play to support the achievement of the SDGs. Many examples exist demonstrating the value of big data to target interventions based on real time information and as a source for new insights into human behaviour. To name only a few… Cell-phone location data has been used to understand how human travel affects the spread of malaria in Kenya. The relative size of air time top-ups can give a real time indication of household vulnerability. Tweets can be used to ‘now-cast’ food prices. Banking transactions give an indication of recovery after a natural disaster.  Throughout the UN, teams such as those in UNICEF, UNDP, UNHCR and WFP among others work with UN Global Pulse and others to use big data to inform programme design to advance the sustainable development goals. Addressing challenges in access to big data while ensuring privacy During the Ebola crisis in West Africa, some attempts were made to access anonymized call detail records from mobile phones to understand people’s movement patterns in order to design prevention and response plans for a rapidly moving deadly disease. One of the challenges experienced during this effort was the lack of a regulatory framework that would assure governments and private sector companies that data would be used responsibly. This meant that using data when it was needed was harder than it needed to be. While there are many benefits to the use of big data for the achievement of the 2030 Agenda, the absence of a common set of principles on data protection, privacy and ethics makes it harder to use big data for development and humanitarian goals. These gaps also complicate efforts to develop standardized, scalable approaches to risk management and data access from partners outside the UN. Putting heads together: lawyers, computer scientists and development experts To ensure that big data is used responsibly, we must use it in a way that respects the right to privacy. Given the emergent nature of technology, and the fact that more and more data is produced by ever-changing technologies, our operating principles need to continuously adapt. Within the UN, we lead a task team devoted to data and transparency. Together with UN Global Pulse, we are working on developing frameworks for safe and responsible use of big data for the achievement of the 2030 Agenda. We started with a  large and ambitious goal: to facilitate data innovation within the UNDG and across the 165 countries where UN teams work together with governments and partners. We started small. Together with legal, policy, data specialists and practitioners from the UN and the UN Global Pulse Data Privacy Advisory Group, the UNDG now has a Guidance Note on Big Data for SDGs: Data Privacy, Ethics and Data Protection. This is the first guidance that has been officially approved and adopted by UNDG with regard to big data and privacy and ethics. The guidance sets the ground for further work and implementation of more substantial mechanisms for responsible data access and use for the achievement of SDGs. The main objectives are to: Establish common principles across UNDG to support the operational use of big data for achievement of the SDGs Manage risk, taking into account fundamental human rights Set principles for obtaining, retention, use and quality control for data from the private sector This new scope of work was only possible due to collaborative work between various experts – from data privacy, data security, legal, policy, data and humanitarian and development practitioners. With this work we are acknowledging the importance of trust between the public and private sectors and the need to understand any potential risks and harms involved in data use for social and public good taking into account a particular context (things like geography, gender, political and social norms etc.). Our guidance goes beyond privacy of individuals as it takes into account the needs and interests of vulnerable groups. We recognize the need to establish proper risk management frameworks and understanding of the risks that involved in the use of data as well as its non-use. It’s a small step, but one we think is in the right direction. Growing sources of data can and should be used to the public benefit -  safely, and taking into account human rights, while embracing a quickly evolving technological environment. That’s the UN of the future. Photo credit: © Dominic Chavez/World Bank

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New voices to build Costa Rica’s future

BY Alice H Shackelford | April 26, 2017

We at the UN in Costa Rica are designing our  next UN common plan for 2018-2022 to support the Government in its efforts to achieve the Global Goals by 2030. To do that, we are following the crowdsourcing spirit of the new development agenda. We are trying to adapt our decision making  so that our new UN Development Assistance Framework is developed with the full wisdom of the crowd. An outreach strategy to leave no one behind To transform the national and UN planning we worked  with a clear objective: engaging those who are often left out of  mainstream development and public policy discussions. In Costa Rica, these communities are often indigenous people, people with disabilities, people of African descent , youth, LGBTI population, migrants, refugees, women (domestic workers and migrants), and children and adolescents. Our intention was to get to know their needs and demands, to know more about their perceptions in terms of development, and, most importantly, to build on what they know to make them part of the solutions. For this participatory journey, we partnered with the University of Costa Rica, specifically the School of Communications, to find the best methods to build a consultation strategy. This partnership helped us identify some of the building blocks for our outreach strategy: People-centered: The way we engage people will be customized to each of the groups that we will approach, i.e., language, accessibility, etc. Action oriented: When we do consultations as the UN, we must have a purpose beyond collecting the demands, needs and solutions; it should invite to action and "engage" people on promoting the 2030 Agenda. Complementary methods: Combine quantitative and qualitative to tell the story behind the data. Expanding reach: We need to combine two types of consultation: virtual tools which can expand the consultation to many people and collect data in an innovative way, and other more traditional techniques to reach the most excluded communities. Less is more: The online platform should be concrete, with a minimalist design that will allow users to swiftly engage in the consultation process. Messages should be short, concise and clear. With these blocks in mind, we moved to develop and implement our strategy to involve those communities that are commonly left behind. And our journey begins As a start we invited people, mainly individuals who had not participated in this type of consultation, to participatory meetings, where they could discuss the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in a creative and interactive way. We consulted 400 women and me from traditionally excluded groups such as: people of African descent, indigenous peoples, LGTBI population, migrants, women (domestic workers and migrants),  young people, persons with disabilities, refugees, children and adolescents. We travelled to various regions in the country (San José, Caribbean South, Limón center and the indigenous area of Térraba) to reach these communities or otherwise they wouldn’t be able to engage in these dialogues. The kind of questions we ask are: What are your group’s demands regarding development? Do the Global Goals encompass your demands? Which SDG should be accelerated in the country and why? What are concrete actions that could be taken to achieve these SDGs? Who can we work with to achieve them? The people we talked to reflected on their experiences, shared their perspectives on SDGs and posed possible solutions to the identified problems. What did we learn? During the consultations, each group had their own specific priorities, but there was a common refrain: People in Costa Rica that we spoke to understand their rights and are ready to claim their fulfillment. Here are some great quotes from people we spoke to during these sessions acknowledging and demanding their rights: "Because of our geographical situation there is little access to specialized educational centers, barely a school, so in order to have an education we have to travel long distances or leave the community, and this is not always easy ... it is a lie that we have access [to education]." Young indigenous person from the Térraba territory. "The labour market leaves out a very vulnerable part of the population... us young people... We do not have work and we cannot find a job ... we end up taking whatever work we can get". Young person during our consultation. "I know many women who want to work, and are hardworking, but they either don’t get a job, they get paid scraps, or the salary is unfair for the job they do." Migrant person present at our consultation reflecting on SDG 1, No poverty. "Access to justice is not real... the stigma for being Afro still exists and when it comes to imparting justice there is a tendency to blame the Afro because of discrimination..." Afrodescendant from the southern Caribbean region. We hear these experiences and value them as important data. In order to gather more inputs during our consultation process, we also set up a web platform to share information about the 2030 Agenda and its goals, asking the people of Costa Rica to have their say in the priorities. We currently have collected more than 250 responses on the platform.   This crowd-sourcing process has impacted how we formed our development priorities. For the first time, the fulfillment of the rights of most excluded populations in Costa Rica, was made explicit in our UN strategic plan as one of the three objectives for the UN and partners to achieve in the next four years (2018-2022): Support to the Government of Costa Rica to implement the national agreement for the Sustainable Development Goals Strengthening Costa Rica’s public sector management Support most excluded populations towards the fulfillment of their rights To keep ourselves accountable, we are now thinking about how to share back with the communities the impact that their voices had on our planning process and how they will transform our future work for the country. Meanwhile we are already working on a monitoring framework for our plan. Towards public accountability The monitoring and evaluation framework is part of any UN strategic plan design phase. So, we decided to be in touch with these communities and other actors engaged in our programmes to check up on whether or not we are delivering on our promises. For that, we thought about upgrading our web platform and use it to monitor the UN programme in Costa Rica. When we shared our plans with the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Policy, their enthusiasm with the idea was such that they proposed to change the scope of the platform and use it as a tool to measure the Costa Rican government's accountability towards the achievement of the SDGs. Costa Rica is the first country in the world to sign a national pact with its people to deliver on the Global Goals in the 2030 Agenda.  And they are inviting people to have their say. Check it out.

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Designing for Fragility in Somalia

BY Marc Jacquand | April 12, 2017

In vulnerable districts of Somalia, we at the UN in Somalia and our partners have limited visibility of the situation on the ground. Due to security issues, we do not have a significant physical presence in districts  where violence continues. This brings us to dilemma: How can we plan our programs effectively if we are not aware of realities on the ground? This weakness undermines the impact of the resources we invest, while increasing the risk of doing harm through ill-designed programming and weak implementation. Unpacking fragility To plan and program, we need to understand what is happening in these vulnerable districts, particularly what we refer to as “fragility”: What triggers conflict and what are the avenues for reconciliation? What are the security, rule of law and justice arrangements? What is the capacity of the government? What socioeconomic activities are communities involved in? Standard situation analyses and needs assessments often do not provide a clear picture of fragility as they tend to be state or country-wide, and are too far removed from details at the district-level. If the UN’s strategic plan and joint programmes are designed based on sound fragility measurements, we hope they will not only be more accurate, but also increase impact for vulnerable areas and populations. We need to gain a better understanding of fragility to understand the vulnerability of districts, particularly if they relapse into conflict under the influence of armed groups.  The lack of district-level data and intelligence So why haven’t we been gathering this kind of data? There are three reasons: Until now, planning and programming in Somalia has been fragmented with little effort to share data, information and intelligence about what happens at the district level. This is true both within the UN and between UN and its partners. Until recently, the UN’s stabilization efforts had little focus on community-level realities and the multidimensional elements of fragility. Until not so long ago, many districts were inaccessible. Recent military gains, as fragile as they may be, offer an opportunity to know more and do more in these districts - if we have the analytical and risk management tools to do so. We want to improve our analytical capacity, at a time when we are designing a new strategic plan and supporting the government of Somalia with their national development plan. We are now focused on community recovery and the extension of state authority and accountability. What does this mean? Supporting Somali-owned and Somali-led processes remains central to our new approach, but it is based on a greater focus on locally-led recovery efforts in areas that have never felt a positive presence of the state. We are also focused on better analytics to understand conflict dynamics and respond accordingly. Stress testing and a one-stop shop We believe that robust risk management and greater investments in fragility measurements at the district level will increase the UN’s impact. Our new approach focuses on advances in risk management. For example, we applying stress testing methods, where a strategy or a programme is subjected to a series of assessments against potential risks and obstacles. This is to ensure that the strategy or programme contains all the necessary measures to address, prevent and respond to risk or obstacles. We also want to provide a coherent and consistent trend analysis of the situation in South Central Somalia. To measure fragility, our core analytical product is an open platform called the Fragility Index Maturity Model, which will be officially launch soon. This model puts together a basic operational picture of progress at the district level. It brings together internal UN resources as well as data from other partners already operating in Somalia, such as the Stability Fund and the US Office of Transitional Initiatives. The model will assess districts by tracking progress on security, policing and the rule of law; governance and reconciliation; and the quantity, quality and accessibility of education, health and other social services. We hope that this information will be useful for UN agencies and the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia, and other partners such as USAID, DFID and the federal and local government in Somalia.   Check back here for updates and do get in touch if you have advice or questions.

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Open data for a safer and child-friendly Albania

BY Bas Berends, Jorina Kadare | April 5, 2017

We need open data, especially about whether our cities are child-friendly and safe for women and children. Here at the UN in Albania, we wanted to fill this data gap in order to put issues of gender equality and sustainable cities higher up on the local government’s agenda. Our larger goal was to collect important data and make it available to both the municipality and the public. We planned our innovation on this hypothesis: if more data from administrative sources and surveys is collected and made publicly available, better informed and more efficient policies will be designed and implemented. We based our hypothesis on evidence, including the annual public opinion survey - Trust in Government, jointly funded by UNDP and the EU Delegation. When we kicked off our work in open data in Albaina, we gained the support of a local open data activist, Redon Skikuli, the founder of Open Labs Hackerspace in Tirana. “I'm really happy to see the UN push open data as a set of tools that empower citizens and make central and local governments more transparent, ” Skikuli said. Blending Data Are there spaces where children can be in contact with nature? Are there health check-ups in the community where children are sick? Is it safe for children to walk or cycle in their community? These are the questions we started asking citizens through surveys, which were divided in two parts. The first half focused on how children and their parents perceive their own cities. UNICEF, along with the Observatory for Children’s Rights, had already done some vital groundwork which we could build upon. The second half of the survey focused on safe cities, as part of UN Women’s “Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces” initiative. It is a first-ever global programme that develops, implements, and evaluates tools, policies and comprehensive approaches on the prevention of and response to sexual harassment and other forms of sexual violence against women and girls across different settings. We plan to blend data and, in this way, create new insights. Data from these public surveys will be combined with administrative data from the police department, the tax office, the education system, and other government departments. It will then be made available as open data for citizens. That way we can triangulate information and get a fuller picture. As a next step, we also used data from the surveys about child-friendly and safe cities as a basis for conducting two  bootcamps; one on child-friendly cities in October and one on safe cities in November 2016. We identified problems and designed solutions with children, youth and women. In our experience, great ideas arise from such bootcamps, especially from our participants. Both events turned out to be highly interactive and  productive. More about these events in our next blog. Data to reengineer municipal services Tirana’s Municipality hosts nearly one third of Albania’s inhabitants, so the municipality has expanded to a much larger area. The territorial expansion of the Municipality created both challenges and opportunities, particularly when it comes to improving the delivery of services, supporting local economic development, and reducing inequalities between different local governments. In Tirana, public service reform is high on the political agenda and the Mayor’s office is busy modernizing and digitizing public services. The vision of the municipality is to transform Tirana from a city struggling to provide its citizens with basic services to a city that is desirable and accessible to residents and visitors. The reform effort has already resulted in an in-depth review and reengineering of 148 services, such as waste management, public kindergartens, public works and issuing of permits. In this backdrop, UNDP Albania and the Municipality organized the Tirana Smart City Conference 2016 – 2026. At the conference, focusing on 5 key themes - mobility, economy, living, society and rural life, participants spoke about how Tirana could become an efficient, economically viable, sustainable and more livable city. Open data and citizen engagement at the local level are particularly important, as they can lead to greater transparency and accountability. More importantly, they can lead to a more efficient local government, and better public service delivery and policy through evidence-based decision-making.  UNDP is currently supporting the Municipality of Tirana in making the data collection processes more effective and making the data visible through an open data portal. This isn’t an easy task! Lessons Learned Data is collected sporadically and there are concerns about sharing data between different departments, timeliness, validity and quality. The municipality officials see the data gathering and data entry process as additional work unrelated to their jobs. Currently, the municipality has 31(!) channels for citizen requests; varying between municipal units, public enterprises, phone lines and an app. Citizen requests could be anything from requests for construction on renovation projects to complaints about government services. Most of the data collected are in Excel format and bear little connection with each other, resulting in difficulties in analyses in the open data portal. In other words, some steps are still needed to make sure that Tirana benefits from a functioning open data portal that can incorporate data from different sources. We hope that the efforts by both UNDP and UNICEF strengthen the municipality’s ability to learn about public concerns and to make good use of innovative ideas among citizens. This will also help the UN in Albania to focus its future efforts when assisting the government to create safe and sustainable cities and communities. Next steps Moving forward, the municipality, assisted by UNDP, will continue to work on the smart city data infrastructure (including innovative financing mechanisms, user-centred research and innovation labs), so that high-value data sets can be posted in the open data portal. We’re also discussing a similar data infrastructure with the municipality of Korca in the south of Albania. Watch this space for more news about open data for a safer and more child-friendly Albania!

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The journey begins: Real-time information for maternal health in Mauritania

BY Jose Levy, Blandine Bihler | March 24, 2017

In Mauritania, 13 women die each week at the time of pregnancy, childbirth or post-birth. Although the maternal mortality curve is beginning to move in the right direction, reproductive health indicators remain a concern. The maternal mortality rate is 582 deaths per 100,000 live births - one of the highest in the region. Those most at-risk are the poor, illiterate women from rural areas with low access to maternal health services, subject to socio-cultural prejudices, adolescents and youth. We at the UN in Mauritania are committed to supporting the Mauritanian Government's efforts to drastically reduce maternal mortality. UN agencies (WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF) are supporting the Ministry of Health to better identify malfunctions in obstetric care and to improve the situation. They also support the ministry to supply health centers with life–saving products and medicines. Faster information…could it save lives? The Mauritanian government needs faster data to know why women are dying and to target resources to save lives.  They also want more up to date status on stocks of essential products and medicines in maternity hospitals, pediatric units and health center pharmacies to prevent stock outs and be able to respond quickly to breaks in critical supplies. In thinking of new ways to solve this issue, we looked at one critical asset: an over 90 percent mobile phone penetration rate in Mauritania.  So we assumed that a real time monitoring system might be able to help. For almost a year now, together with the Mauritanian Ministry of Health and Community Systems Foundation - CSF, we have been working to design a real time monitoring tool in three health centers in Nouakchott, which despite being the capital still constitutes 80 percent of the maternal deaths in Mauritania. We wanted healthcare providers to be able to report in real time (less than 24 hours) maternal deaths and drug inventory. We decided to use smart phones because they are less expensive than tablets and at least in Noakchott they are very common. We also couldn’t use basic phones because they couldn’t handle the volume of data we needed. Once data is recorded through a mobile survey using an open source tool, Ministry professionals can consult the information through key performance indicators on an inter-active dashboard. So we tested it out. Nurses, midwives and doctors loved it. The app also attracted considerable interest among the other players in the health structures tested. If you are considering a similar solution, let us save you a few steps! Its great to see things coming together, but it has been a long and winding road. First, we built up the demand for real time data – which might be more than the system can respond to! Along the way, we had some seriously doubts in our ability to develop the envisaged system. To anyone thinking of moving in this direction   let us share some words of advice: Narrow your data dreams. High expectations and a lot of data gaps meant that it was difficult to establish the scope of what data we really needed. We started too broad - ‘basic social services (health, education and protection of victims of violence)’ but this wide scope had led to practical implications, making the system too cumbersome and non-functional (too many issues covered and therefore too much data to be collected at high cost). Working across different sectoral experts and parts of the UN, we needed criteria to prioritize which data we really needed. We decided to consider a sector having an analysis of the situation with a clear identification of the bottlenecks and priority actions to be carried out, which could be monitored in real time. Back in the days of the Millennium Development Goals we had done a bottleneck analysis on how to accelerate progress in maternal health so this was a good factor in deciding in favor of a focus on this issue. Health experts and data teams on board from the beginning. We started this  real time monitoring journey within the UN’s Program Management Group which is responsible for monitoring the results of the UN’s work in Mauritania. It brings together management across the UN and the monitoring and evaluation officers. We made progress, but really it was only when the health technicians were brought on board that the blockages could be lifted and we got real commitment and momentum to work together on this. Once we had the health people in the room, the added value of the real-time monitoring system was immediately clear. Those struggling to reduce maternal deaths saw it as an action-research tool that allows them to adjust their response strategies. So, if you plan to embark on a similar adventure, bring in the content experts from the start. The mobilization of technical expertise: a challenge. Once the scope of the real time monitoring system was identified, the next challenge was to find a partner capable of supporting us in implementing it. After several unsuccessful attempts, we contacted CSF, based on the suggestion of our colleagues at UN DOCO, who already worked with the foundation in the framework of the UNDAF online monitoring tool. As CSF holds a long term agreement with UNFPA, we piggybacked on this and started our collaboration. After a first scoping mission in October 2016, CSF conducted a pre-piloting mission in Nouakchott this January to propose a mobile based solution to capture data at the health facility level. Plan for the recurring costs of data collection. When we started, we looked at several options for data collection, based particularly on UNICEF’s experience with a real-time monitoring system. We looked at  one model that would have regional planning units and regional offices of the national statistical office collect the data and others that thought volunteers from the UN Volunteers Programme could do on-site collection of health data. All of these options had cost implications. Once we considered what would build on the work of the Ministry of Health, we realized that a smart phone would be best so that health personnel can directly record data as they are the ones closest to the job. Within two or three months, we will expand the system to all health facilities in two regions of Mauritania and will provide real-time information on maternal deaths in these two areas and, ultimately, adequate response measures to prevent the occurrence of new deaths related to gaps in the health system. Mauritania’s maternal health real time data journey continues…stay tuned for our next installment and do get in touch if you have questions or ideas.

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Five steps forward for the UNDAF

BY Diana Torres | March 16, 2017

In the world of development, UNDAF is one acronym you must know if you are interested in the UN’s work. The UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) provides a multi- year strategic plan for the UN’s work in a country. UNDAFs are critical for the UN at the country level to channel coherent support to governments and partners to achieve results for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Given the newness of Agenda 2030, the 2016 UNDAFs were one of a kind: they set the benchmark on new trends and practices to illustrate the role of the UN in supporting governments to achieve sustainable development goals. Last year, a small team in the UN Development Operations Coordination Office embarked on a review of 27 UNDAFs that will be implemented over the next 5 years to see what we could learn. What did our review reveal?   1. UNDAFs are slowly moving away from sectoral approaches towards more integrated and multidimensional results. One of the most significant paradigm shifts of the SDGs is the multifaceted and interdependent nature of the SDGs. Distinct from the sectoral approaches that marked the Millennium Development Goals, the SDGs require complex and multidimensional thinking. Our study showed early progress in this direction: 55 percent of the UNDAFs reflect integrated approaches and outcomes to tackle national development issues. This is a critical area that needs rapid improvement if we want to meet the expectations of member states. The UNDAFs of good examples of integrated approaches, where gender, environment and human rights underpin the strategic results. These UNDAFs outline a collaborative approach: there are detailed roles and contributions of different UN agencies in achieving results, linking the shared roles and expertise of the UN across the areas relevant to these cross-sectoral challenges. 2. There is an increased focus on strengthening data capacities at the country level, with room for improvement. One of the main demands of member states from the UN is supporting data-related capacity in countries. We found significant progress compared to previous years, but not all UNDAFs articulate a coherent approach towards strengthening the quality of data and national statistics in countries. Only 60 percent of the 2016 UNDAFs included strategies to support national statistics organizations, particularly supporting data relevant to the SDGs. Some examples of UNDAFs that incorporated strengthening data capacity include Georgia, Indonesia, Turkey, and El Salvador. 3. There is some progress on joint humanitarian and development approaches The challenges the world faces today require a coherent approach, one that brings together the humanitarian, development and peace communities to ensure long-lasting results for countries. Our review found that some of the UNDAF (particularly those from Central Asia) show progress in this direction. For example, five UNDAFs (Armenia, Syria, FYR Macedonia, and Uzbekistan) make reference to humanitarian response, in the context of refugee migration. Nine countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kosovo*, Syria, Tajikistan, FYR Macedonia, Turkey and Zambia) include indicators tracking support to refugees and/or internally displaced people, and linking development and humanitarian responses. This is an area where we hope to see more progress in coming years - it is essential to reengineer how we work together and provide preventive, rapid and long-lasting responses to the humanitarian and development challenges many countries are facing today. 4. Revitalizing global partnerships through south-south cooperation is top on the agenda. Around 80 percent of the 2016 UNDAFs that we looked at are from middle-income and/or high-income countries, with the rest from low-income countries. This reflects the reality of our operations across the world. A significant number of UNDAFs have a specific focus on partnerships at the regional and global levels. Eight of the 27 UNDAFs have a specific outcome related to south-south cooperation. Examples include the UNDAFs of China, Kazakhstan,  and Uruguay, among others. 5. UNDAFs are keeping track of UN contributions to the SDGs. Already in 2016, governments and UN country teams in most countries reflect a shared understanding of the linkages between the UNDAF results and support to partners on the  SDGs. In our review, up to 78 percent of UNDAFs link outcomes to the SDGs. In Argentina, for example, SDGs and recommendations from international human rights mechanisms were fully linked to each of the UNDAF outcomes. However, there are challenges. Some UNDAFs identified only one or two SDGs per outcome, when there are likely multiple relationships to other goals. Tracking contribution to multi-sectoral goals like the SDGs will be a challenge in coming years. We hope that the findings and recommendations from this analysis are useful for countries starting a new UNDAF process this year. Kudos those country teams that have raised the bar during this period of transition from the millennium development goals to the SDGs.   * (Administered by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in the context of UN Security Council Resolution 1244)

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Eating an elephant (in other words… foresight for the SDGs in Bosnia & Herzegovina)

BY Envesa Hodzic-Kovac | February 23, 2017

“How do you eat an elephant? One spoonful at a time.” This saying applies to any undertaking whose size and proportions are immense.  Where to start is daunting. For me, the Sustainable Development Goals — an ambitious set of goals agreed to by UN Members States that establishes milestones of growth & equality within the limits of the planet — are the elephant. No poverty. Zero hunger.  Reduced inequalities. Sustainable cities. Climate Action. Decent work. All by 2030. These are ambitious goals.  They demand that different entities of the UN work together in new ways. In order to tackle them, we need to have a plan. We need to know where to start. How do you prioritise different aspects of human development– all are important, and all are urgent, and all are long-term issues that cannot be solved with short-fixes. It is not just about the government doing their bit, it is really about all of us. We need individual action, communal action, citizen action. How to get people on board of complex agenda such as Sustainable Development Goals? And how to do it in a complex administrative set-up such as Bosnia and Herzegovina? Strategic foresight to approach the enormity of the SDGs In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the United Nations is using strategic foresight as part of its consultations process to build momentum for the Sustainable Development Goals. In order for us to start getting our heads around the 2030 Agenda, we needed  a participatory planning process that gets beyond past and present to look into the future to create the future… it is a forward-looking approach aimed at using the future to create change in the present…” Our work has built upon the work done in Montenegro, where UN colleagues have engaged with think-tanks, academia, statistical office and NGOs. They worked with disruptive innovators, digital champions and active youth to create alternative scenarios for Montenegro’s future. Don’t call it a game gamification We adapted the tool initially developed by the UN Montenegro for the post-2015 national consultations – they called it Enhanced Survey Tool – and it is exactly that, but with our adaptation it is also a collective problem solving tool.  The tool looks and feels like a board game (I still remember the odd looks we would get when we placed it, unopened, on the table in front of our stakeholders before explaining what it was!). We used our ‘game’ that we call SDG Consultations Tool with 600 people to gauge their positive and negative associations with the past and present, their visions for the future, the way they think about the future, what values, actions, structures and threats/opportunities they identify around specific SDG/Target and solutions/ideas how to address or accelerate achievement of the SDG/Target. Through this process, we collected over 80 ’bright ideas’ that we will present to at the high level SDG Conference with policy makers as accelerating solutions that people collectively envisaged to meet targets and SDGs in our country context. The game also generates demographic data so we can disaggregate the priorities, values actions and institutional suggestions from all who engaged in this participatory process. We also conducted a postcards from the future campaign in order to get people thinking in an imagined space of what futures could or should be. We now have over 200 tangible artifacts from the future that are personal to people in BiH. Check out  our facebook page for more on this. The future of the future At a minimum, everyone who has played the SDG game now knows what all of the SDGs are, and has a personal association with them.  This is no small accomplishment. Getting people to wrap their heads around 169 targets can result in a rote type exercise. This tool helped us get out of that limitation.   The  tool also helped us all see the incredible interconnectedness of the 2030 Agenda and the approaches that we need to take to achieve them. Sustainable development requires a future-orientation. This tool helped us get people in Bosnia & Herzegovina into a creative space. A lesson learned about introducing strategic foresight to others is to try to minimise explaining what it is. It works best when it is applied and used immediately. A ‘deep dive’ into strategic foresight works well since the approach we have used is very intuitive and people get it the moment they get immersed in it. Foresight helped us move beyond thinking that the future has to be an extension of the present. And beyond thinking that forecasting is exclusively based on quantitative data.  The next step would be us to support a shift among our partners in the government  institutions responsible for planning towards regularized human-centered, citizen derived data about the future, alongside data driven modelling which they may already be using. We found that foresight not only helps you think collectively about the future but also makes a dent in overcoming contexts where participatory planning is difficult.  We are all equals when it comes to the future – by design no one voice can dominate. And this is a good start to Agenda 2030 that vows to leave no one behind.

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Cameroon: Putting the people back into UN strategy planning

BY Olive Bonga | February 16, 2017

What does it take to carry out the UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF)? Many things. But one thing is certain – long gone are the days when this exercise was centered on a dialogue between the UN and the Government, leaving no room for the general public and specific groups  of people like youth and women to have their say. When the UN Country Team in Cameroon embarked on this exercise, the use of social media was key. What better way to reach and get young people’s voices heard? Using social media as part of UNDAF seemed only appropriate in the context of the SDGs and post-2015 development agenda, and in a world where the people we are working with are not only beneficiaries of development but a conduit and resource to development. So, how did we do it? We asked questions on Twitter and Facebook. Our hashtag? #UNCMR4U. That is: ‘the UN in Cameroon for you’. We wanted to hear from young people, women, refugees and other vulnerable groups. We wanted to know – what is their perception of our work and contributions to their country’s development? How do they see our role in improving the lives of the people of Cameroon – especially of youth, girls and women? Spreading the word People will participate in consultations, but they have to know about it first. And, so, we traveled across six of the 10 regions, targeting mainly universities, spreading the word on how everyone would benefit from having their voices heard, and how to go about it. We enlisted the media to amplify our messages, and people find out about consultations on their radios and TVs. A two-month conversation It all came down to: 40 questions (grouped under 10 key areas) shared over two months (between October and December 2015) via the UN in Cameroon’s Facebook and Twitter accounts; and 300 answers. Capturing rural voices We were mindful that people living in rural areas had limited access to internet. Here we rolled out good, old fashioned focus group discussions. We talked to women, men and youth groups in four regions (Central, East, Far North and South West) focusing on the same 40 questions that were shared online. Nearly 500 people – including civil servants, local government representatives, young people and farmers – participated in the face-to-face discussions. Long-lasting benefits Did the people of Cameroon engage in the online discussions? In brief: yes. Even after the discussions were closed, answers to our questions kept trickling in. People were connecting with one another. Our hashtag has been used by millions of Cameroonians and is has become part of our UN brand in the country. Common themes identified by participants were: equality between men and women, food security, confidence in the banking system, education and the job market and health care. Key findings of this exercise helped us set the priorities of our new UN strategic framework which now focuses in the following areas: development of decent job opportunities and social inclusion, health and nutrition, education and vocational training, resilience, food security and early recovery. The online discussions helped raise awareness about and got people interested in the UN’s work. We reached over 50,000 people, with over 400 people talking about the UNDAF exercise online, including UN social media influencers such as the chair of the UNDG – Helen Clark. The UN Cameroon’s social media accounts attracted a significant number of new followers; Facebook “likes” rose up to 3,600, and retweets to 600. We are excited about this new way of working and we are already working on how to build on this experience to spread the word of the 2030 Agenda in Cameroon!

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UN Zambia: from assistance to partnership

BY Rekha Shrestha | February 9, 2017

In 2016, the UN in Zambia launched the first Sustainable Development Partnership Framework (2016-2021), a strategic document to address some of the multi-dimensional development challenges faced by this emerging middle income country. I was proud to be part of a process that led us to a UN strategy that fully embraces the spirit of Agenda 2030, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the standard operating procedures for Delivering as One countries. First, and foremost: analysis of why poverty persists We started the planning process with an analysis to better understand the development dynamics of a country where over 50 per cent of its population is under 18, and 40 per cent live in extreme poverty while the country enjoys a high and stable economic growth. Zambia’s Gini Coefficient value of 0.65 was also a red flag. Our country analysis focused on people and the exclusions and vulnerabilities that could be both cause and result of Zambia’s development paradox. In this exercise we looked at the causes of multiple inter-linked vulnerabilities. Take for example, how a poor indigenous Batwa woman, in absence of national registration card (citizenship), faces multi-layered vulnerabilities and is marginalised. Pervasive inequalities have contributed to a situation where Zambian women often make up a disproportionate share of the poor due to their limited access to and control over land, livestock, credit and technology. Legal hurdles can exacerbate this problem.  A Batwa woman can neither access credit, nor purchase land or migrate safely for economic opportunities. This means that women are overrepresented in the informal sectors, where income is low and unreliable. All of these factors increase women’s vulnerabilities to poverty, poor health and discrimination. And this can mean that poverty in Zambia is transmitted across generations. Our analysis showed that addressing vulnerabilities emanating from deep rooted discrimination, marginalization, exclusion and inequalities, should be the role of the UN system to support the people of Zambia fully enjoying their rights. The complex inequality story becomes clear…now what? Our country analysis was the first step in developing our new partnerships framework. Once the understanding of the UN role was clear, we needed to figure out: What value could the UN system add to Zambia’s own efforts towards socio-economic transformation? And more importantly, where would the UN contribution make the biggest difference in an equation in which official development assistance contributes to only 1 per cent of the national spending? The UN as an integrator and innovator in Zambia After brainstorming with partners, including the private sector, we found out that our partners value us as a thought leader, an integrator and an innovator. They highlighted the fact that the United Nations is adept at ensuring an integrated approach, working across sectors, and providing specialised advice in addressing multi-sectoral development challenges like those that solidify poverty among women.  Our partners see the UN as an impartial broker, and value our ability to work in partnership with various stakeholders in Zambia. Given Zambia’s economy is based on the mining sector, teaming up with mining companies in Zambia presents opportunities to advance ‘business and human rights’. This new approach to our work is captured in the first Sustainable Development Partnership Framework (2016-2021), which differs to the traditional UNDAF approach: It is human rights based. It means that the UN’s response to Zambia’s development challenges and priorities has been articulated fully from a Human Rights perspective, putting people at the heart of development work to achieve the realization of their rights. It aims to promote participation and accountability by: enabling rights holders to demand and exercise their rights and building the capacity of duty bearers to understand and fulfill their obligations. Investments over delivery. Departing from sectoral interventions (education, health, agriculture etc) based on sectoral Common Country Assessment, Zambia’s Partnership Framework uses a multi-sectoral approach to development, which we think is necessary to contribute to the achievement of the SDGs, and to address the root causes of poverty, inequalities, vulnerabilities and on building resilience. The emphasis is on partnerships and smart investments (rather than the UN delivery), as well as on increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the UN through a strengthened Delivering as One approach. It has eight strategic outcomes that ensure alignment and development effectiveness by fully reflecting the high ambition of the Sustainable Development Goals and by responding to Zambia’s development priorities. These outcomes are focused on the need to ‘leave no one behind’ and to reach the large number of people in Zambia who are marginalized and vulnerable through poverty, discrimination, ignorance or prejudice. The partnership framework is being implemented through 11 multi-sectoral results groups, chaired by UN heads of agencies and their Government counterparts, encouraging close coordination with partners. The partnership framework also establishes Zambia as an equal partner, driving national development priorities, as opposed to a country receiving assistance. Recognising Zambia as a country in the path to become a middle income nation, the  framework encourages domestic financing to address issues of common interest. For example, the UN Country Team and the Zambia’s Vice President’s Office partnered to document issues one of the indigenous Batwa communities in the course of preparing a joint Country Analysis. The findings not only informed the development of the Partnership Framework, but also influenced the Government decision to provide national registration cards (citizenship) to Batwa communities. Partnership as such promotes national ownership, shared responsibilities and a joined-up approach. The takeaways: We’ve come a long way! UN agencies have developed a strong commitment to operationalizing UN System support under the Delivering as One approach. Over the past four years of my tenure in Zambia, I have noticed the UN Country Team coming together more systematically. Delivering as One structure is fully operational and Joint Work Plans of Results Groups are in place to ensure coherent UN support. Political commitment is key. Also important is to implement joined-up approach where it makes sense. The Programme Team has been ahead of Business Operations Team in this process, and challenges remain cascading from HQ level that stand in the way of greater harmonization. Different operational modalities of agencies create difficulties to harmonise policy on issues even on seemingly straighforward issues, like deploying an intern to work at the UN. A strong skill set of strategic policy, programming, communications, human rights and gender in the UN Resident Coordinator’s Office was essential in facilitating an inclusive process. And this coordination cornerstone requires multi-year, predictable funding to draw down on expertise  across the UN System and from external organisations. From planners to transformers Our new strategic framework sees multi-stakeholder partnership as an essential ingredient to achieve sustainable development results that are people-centered. The inter-agency team that led in the planning stage is now the UN in Zambia Strategic Transformation Team of Advisers. They are coordinated by the UN Resident Coordinator Office to ensure the on-going quality and endurance of the partnership concept through the life of the partnership framework. These advisers support the RC/UNCT, preparing regular analysis, identifying flagship issues for UN policy advocacy and advancing inter-agency policy dialogue. As Mark Twain once said, “The secret to getting ahead is getting started”; we hope to make progress in the years to come, as with determination we started in 2016, our journey from development assistance to partnership for sustainable development!

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