This paper reflects on an ongoing initiative of the Regional UNDG working group on Social Protection. The Group, co-chaired by ILO and UNDP Group, was established in March 2016 and is bringing together regional experts from ILO, UNDP, UNICEF, FAO, WFP, UNHCR, UNFPA, WHO, UNV, UNODC, ESCWA, IOM to share knowledge, think and work together on the development of effective and inclusive social protection systems, including floors, in the Arab region, as a key pathway for reducing vulnerabilities and building resilience to shocks and stresses, reducing poverty and achieving the SDGs. The Group has thus started to look at the response to the Syria crisis – specifically the Refugee and Resilience Plan - from a social protection lens. The issue paper aims to support a new vision for the response to social protection needs of refugees, IDPs and vulnerable host communities. This vision should be aligned with the global commitments to ‘leave no one behind’ and to harness synergies between humanitarian and development action (and financing) in strengthening capacities to deliver social protection services that can preserve human capital and build resilience of both communities in a sustainable manner.